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中国载人登月火箭及其动力系统设想
2006年07月25日 
 

张小平 张贵田 刘占国 陈建华
陕西动力机械设计研究所,陕西 西安 710100

摘要

  月球是距离地球最近的星球,月球的资源、能源与特殊环境将对人类社会的可持续发展作出重大贡献,21世纪航天发展的重点将是月球研究与开发。中国的长远设想分为“探、登、驻” ( “月球探测、载人登月、建立基地”)三步进行,第一步月球探测包括“绕、落、回”(发射月球卫星、月球车着陆、采集样品返回)三期计划,第一期绕月工程目前进展顺利,将于2007年实施,运载器为“CZ-3A” 运载火箭;第二、三期计划在2012~2017年实施,运载器为正在研制的新一代运载火箭。

  但是,与载人登月和建立月球基地的要求相比,中国现有和正在研制的运载火箭尚有较大差距。为此,本文提出研制重型运载火箭及其动力系统的的方案设想。中国载人登月重型运载火箭可采用三级半方案,起飞质量约2800吨,最大直径8m,奔月轨道(LTO)运载能力50吨。

  重型运载火箭动力系统中,二子级和三子级可采用新一代运载火箭的推力120吨级液氧煤油发动机和推力50吨级氢氧发动机。助推级和一子级采用新研制的大推力液体火箭发动机。大推力发动机是载人登月火箭动力系统的关键。该发动机应选择环保、廉价、高性能的液氧烃推进剂。动力循环方式中,补燃循环的性能比燃气发生器循环高近20%,因此发动机应选择补燃循环方式。

  中国的载人登月受制于运载火箭及其动力系统,考虑到动力系统的研制难度和研制周期,应开展方案论证和关键技术预研。

The Scheme of Chinese Manned Lunar Rocket and its Propulsion System
Zhang Xiaoping ,Zhang Guitian, Liu Zhanguo ,Chen Jianhua
(Shaanxi Power Machine Design and Research Institute ,Xi’an 710100,China)

Abstract

The moon is the nearest celestial body to the earth. The resources, energy and special environment on the moon will contribute greatly to sustainable development of human being. Exploration of the moon will be the main task of aerospace industry in 21’st century.

The long-term scheme of Chinese lunar mission consists of three steps which are lunar exploration, manned lunar landing and base construction on the moon. The first step includes three stages which are lunar satellite launching, the moon vehicle landing and sample collected returning. The first stage project has developed smoothly up to now and will be accomplished in 2007. LM-3A will be the launch vehicle. The second and the third stage project will be processed in 2012~2017. The new generation rocket now under developing will be used as the launch vehicle.

However, the payload of Chinese existing and in developing rocket can not meet the mission of manned lunar landing and base establishing. Therefore, the scheme of developing heavy carrier and its propulsion system is proposed in this paper.

China manned lunar rocket can employ a 3.5 stages concept, with a launch mass about 2800 tons, maximum diameter of 8m, and the payload capability of lunar transfer orbit of 50 tons. For the manned lunar rocket, the second stage and the third stage can use 1200kN LOX/kerosene engine and 500kN liquid hydrogen/LOX engine respectively. Booster stage and the first stage use newly developed large thrust liquid rocket engine.

Large thrust engine is the key to manned lunar rocket propulsion system. The engine is suggested to use environmentally friend, cheap and high performance LOX hydrocarbon   propellant. The performance of staged combustion cycle is about 20% higher than the gas generator cycle, therefore the staged combustion cycle is the best choice for the engine.

The project of manned lunar mission in China is largely depended on rocket and its propulsion system. Key technique development of manned lunar rocket should be performed in advance.

Key words:Lunar Rocket;Propulsion;Engine;Power Cycle

 
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